Technology can improve our ability to forecast extreme events, withstand the impacts of the events, and recover afterward. To be able to capture the complexity of these aspects of environmental vulnerability requires the development of a variety of indicators that target different spatial and temporal scales and hierarchical levels of the ecosystem. Vulnerabilities help predict health problems and your risk for certain diseases or of public health emergencies and your associated risks. WASTE TREATMENT40. Vulnerabilities associated with social norms and discrimination. Children and the elderly tend to be more vulnerable. Moreover, during a disaster it is difficult for caretakers or family members to reach people with disabilities who need special assistance. Attack Complexity: Low In addition, because many LGBTI individuals conceal their sexual identities in public to avoid harassment, loss of privacy due to the destruction of homes may result in additional stress. SANITATION44. TOURISTS48. The elderly often also have declining vision and hearing. Compare that to Haiti after its 2010 earthquake. The Sahel region (the southern edge of the Sahara desert in Africa) is periodically plagued by droughts. Importantly, these intersecting human factors of vulnerability cannot be simply “added”—they are compounded in complex ways that are difficult to predict, but are revealed during the disaster. USB thumb drives: Believe it or not, USB drives are actually one of, if not the most, common ways … SULPHUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS38. In order to properly manage space, in accordance with the idea of sustainable development, zones of environmental sensitivity—and their socio-environmental vulnerability—have been designated for assessing damage (exceeding permissible noise in health facilities) and defining methods of building resilience (proper management). Here is another example that will help clarify exactly what sort of education is important for natural disasters. vulnerability of modern societies to attacks by non-state terrorist actors. A0001: Ability to identify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and configuration data. The vulnerability is a system weakness that can be exploited by a potential attacker. Gender-related differences are also found in vulnerability to the indirect and longer-term effects of climate-related hazards. Histories of racial segregation and institutionalized discrimination in many countries have resulted in greater poverty rates and lower quality housing and services among people of color. Thomas A. Glass2. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Vulnerability varies significantly within a … Children, especially young children, have less education. Intersectional approaches to vulnerability. Since the government usually sets up same-sex shelters, trans individuals are not easily assigned to the appropriate shelter because government officials expect their gender identity to match their sex as stated in their IDs. The College of Earth and Mineral Sciences is committed to making its websites accessible to all users, and welcomes comments or suggestions on access improvements. A0044: Ability to apply programming language structures (e.g., source code review) and logic. DEGRADATION28. Environmental vulnerability has been characterised by three components or sub-indices. MINING43. For example, a young white, low-income man with a disability and a low-income elderly woman of color living in the same neighborhood may both be very vulnerable to a hurricane, but their experiences of vulnerability will certainly be quite distinct. COUNTRY DISPERSION13. In addition, whiter neighborhoods received more volunteers than equally affected neighborhoods with more people of color. Watch the following 6 minute video with video and images from the tsunami. Vulnerabilities could range to a number of things from devices connected to … Differential vulnerability & Susceptibility: expanding the scope of risk assessment . The risk of specific natural hazards varies widely from region to region. Thankfully, this does not require our full knowledge of every transaction because if this were a requirement, we would never be able to use indicators at all. INDUSTRY41. Can these factors be integrated to disaster preparedness so that people can be better prepared and have faster and more efficient response to disasters? For example, floods tend to occur in low-lying areas near water. When populations are literate, then written messages can be used to spread word about hazards in general or about specific disasters. Earthquakes and volcanoes tend to occur near boundaries of tectonic plates. Technology is closely tied to wealth, education, and governance. It is the result of what resources are available to you and the challenges you face. Some important environmental vulnerability issues are not yet measured because relevant data or robust measurement techniques are not yet available. INTRODUCTIONS22. Assesses policies and practices to ensure zero-vulnerability related on wired or wireless networks. Technology. systematic review of security weaknesses in an information system Many of the health risks that are influenced by environment and climate change show gender differentials. VEHICLES45. Governance. Vulnerabilities in functionality added to a browser, e.g., libraries, plugins, extensions and add-ons, are treated as part of the browser when determining Attack Vector. Finally, they can foster social networks and empower individuals and communities to help themselves to prepare for and respond to hazards. Please send comments or suggestions on accessibility to the site editor. Environmental vulnerability has been characterised by three components or sub-indices. Examples of systems for which vulnerability assessments are performed include, but are not limited to, information technology systems, energy supply systems, water supply systems, transportation systems, and communication systems. Growth in population and the economy is a main reason that more money is lost. Environmental conflicts, access to resources and women’s vulnerability There is acceptance that poverty and environmental degradation (an important aspect of several types of environmental conflicts) have disproportionate impacts on African women (especially those who reside in rural areas). IRI = Intrinsic Resilience sub-Index (Intrinsic resilience) They don’t avoid negative emotions. LGBTI people may face difficulties in shelters after a natural hazard strikes. MARINE RESERVES, 30. Tsunami folklore 'saved islanders' by Subir Bhaumik for BBC News discusses how ancient, isolated tribes on Indian Ocean islands drew on their oral traditions to survive the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Within the United States, some regions are more vulnerable to natural hazards than others. RELIEF15. Here are some important human factors that tend to influence disaster severity. Examples may include poor design and construction of buildings, inadequate protection of assets, lack of public information and awareness, limited official recognition of risks and preparedness measures, and disregard for wise environmental management. Physical vulnerability includes the difficulty in access to water resources, means of communications, hospitals, police stations, fire brigades, roads, bridges and exits of a building or/an area, in case of disasters. Potential effects are varied and may contribute to an increase in vulnerability and the frequency and intensity of natural hazards. They venture into the wilderness where help and modern conveniences are far removed. The EVI utilises 50 ‘smart indicators’ to capture the key elements of environmental vulnerability. Many of the world’s earthquakes and volcanoes occur along the edge of the Pacific Ocean, along the boundaries of the Pacific Plate. Vulnerability to natural hazards is thus the potential to be harmed by natural hazards. HIGH WINDS2. In the book Daring Greatly: How the Courage to Be Vulnerable Transforms the Way We Live, Love, Parent, and Lead by Dr Brené Brown, vulnerability is defined as uncertainty, risk and emotional exposure. This re… 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 For example, Pennsylvania has a relatively low vulnerability, whereas Florida has a relatively high vulnerability. International initiatives to measure environmental condition or change range have developed anywhere from 4 to 260 indicators with increasing numbers being used to assess sustainable development progress or state of environment. Within the hazards literature, vulnerability has many different connotations, Social norms and discrimination based on sex, sexual orientation and race may place certain groups in a more vulnerable position than others. Because of these and other factors, when disaster strikes, the poor are far more likely than the rich to be injured or killed. 1. ISOLATION14. Response in environmental health emergencies. The nature of both formal governments and informal governance in a population is another important factor. Host Assessment: Server and host vulnerabilities are identified. Helicopters were also used to distribute water. ENDEMICS21. If we want greater clarity in our purpose or deeper or me… POPULATION46. For instance, after the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989, the media covered damage in whiter areas earlier than in ethnic minority neighborhoods, leading to a quicker emergency response in the former. Education is another important factor in hazard impacts. Recovery in environmental health emergencies. HOT PERIODS5. People with disabilities are particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. About 40,000 people died in one of the hottest summers ever in Europe. Authors: Petra Tschakert, Assistant Professor of Geography; Karl Zimmerer, Professor and Department Head of Geography; Brian King, Assistant Professor of Geography; Seth Baum, Graduate Assistant and Ph.D. student in Geography and Chongming Wang, Teaching Assistant, Geography. The capabilities of the available technology can also play a large role in disasters. The force sent massive waves out in all directions. Wealth is one of the most important human factors in vulnerability. ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS50. Affiliations: 1. EXTINCTIONS24. COLD PERIODS6. In places where men are raised to be breadwinners, families prioritize boys’ education over girls’, thereby making women more likely to be poor and less educated than men. This leaves them less mobile and more likely to experience harm themselves. When the waves reached coasts, they caused massive destruction, killing over 230,000 people, making the event one of the deadliest natural disasters ever. SPILLS42. This, in turn, helps us reduce vulnerability and, when extreme events occur, reduce the damage. This increases our resilience to hazards. If we have a high temperature it is a symptom of a potential health problem and we then rely on further tests and our doctor’s experience to find out what may be wrong. In general, vulnerability means the potential to be harmed. But other knowledge can help, too. Indicators, like temperature in this case, do not tell us exactly what is wrong but are a helpful gauge that identifies a potential problem that requires further investigation. Forest fires tend to occur (as you might guess) in forests. The term ‘smart indicators’ has been used to define EVI indicators which aim to capture a large number of elements in a complex interactive system while simultaneously showing how the value obtained relates to some ideal condition. This government is isolated from the international community and, thus, was not welcoming to international assistance in the aftermath of the cyclone. SLIDES11. Forest fires tend to occur (as you might guess) in forests. 3. The site editor may also be contacted with questions or comments about this Open Educational Resource. They are less able to purchase resources needed for disaster response and are less likely to have insurance policies that can contribute. AVI = Acquired Vulnerability sub-Index (this was EDI - Environmental Degradation sub-Index (Extrinsic resilience). INTENSIVE FARMING31. To be able to capture the complexity of these aspects of environmental vulnerability requires the development of a variety of indicators that target different spatial and temporal scales and hierarchical levels of the ecosystem. Each indicator is classified into a range of sub-indices including the three aspects of hazards; resistance and damage and into policy-relevant sub-indices including: Climate Change = CC | Biodiversity = CBD | Water = W | Agriculture and fisheries = AF | Human health aspects = HH | Desertification = CCD | Exposure to Natural disasters = D. Each indicator is also accompanied by a short form key name, detailed definition, keywords and a description of the main signals for which it is a proxy as well as the indicator’s policy relevance. Ports and services are examined. The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. These sub-indices focus on ecosystem integrity and how it is threatened by anthropogenic and natural hazards. There is also an increase in the number of disasters reported, which can be caused by population growth, economic growth, or changes in reporting standards. With the appropriate information at hand, the risk factors can rightly be understood, and the required measures … For example, floods tend to occur in low-lying areas near water. Improved science and technology is a main reason that fewer lives are lost. Version 11 . HABITAT FRAGMENTATION27. Likewise, even without governments, communities can informally engage in many of these governance activities. Managing environmental health risks in emergencies. The poor are less able to afford housing and other infrastructure that can withstand extreme events. Some emergency response technologies do not meet the needs of people with disabilities. An example of the role of age is the 2003 European heat wave. Age. Many of the world’s earthquakes and volcanoes occur along the edge of the Pacific Ocean, along the boundaries of the Pacific Plate. PRODUCTIVITY OVERFISHING35. Vulnerability is how susceptible you are to harm. However, these material disparities alone do not explain the greater losses experienced by people of color. CONFLICTS, Measuring the resilience of our planetary life-support systems, EVI = Environmental vulnerability index Also, the rich tend to lose more money from disasters, simply because they have more valuable property at stake. FERTILISERS32. RENEWABLE WATER37. The 50 indicators been selected to measure environmental vulnerability are detailed below. Please adjust the settings to examine several graphs. On December 26, 2004, a massive earthquake occurred underwater in the Indian Ocean. BORDERS17. The Sahel region (the southern edge of the Sahara desert in Africa) is periodically plagued by droughts. Some populations are more likely to face vulnerabilities than others. But there are exceptions. The helicopters were crucial because Port-au-Prince's port was damaged, as were many roads. Vulnerability can be expressed or presented in various ways (Calvi et al., 2006). COASTAL SETTLEMENTS49. They make threat outcomes possible and potentially even more dangerous. This region is known as the Ring of Fire for its intense volcanic activity. Provide visibility into the patch history of scanned systems and configured systems. While any one extreme event may be unusual, there are broad trends in natural hazards. These threats may be the result of natural events, accidents, or intentional acts to cause harm. Earthquakes and volcanoes tend to occur near boundaries of tectonic plates. 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